About the Splendors of the Mediterranean Winter Program
This course involves a fifteen day educational tour of Greece and Italy. During this fifteen day course students will learn about Renaissance Italy as well as ancient Rome and Greece through guided tours that will discuss the political, religious, architectural and artistic history of all three civilizations. The course begins with an overnight flight to Milan Italy from which we will take a bus to Venice. We will take a guided tour of Venice that will include a visit to Doges’ Palace which was the seat of the government in Venice for over 1000 years. After our tour of the Doges Palace students will attend a glass blowing demonstration. We will also go to St Mark Square and then visit the Grand Canal and Basilica di San Marco which is the most famous of the many churches of Venice and one of the best examples of Byzantine architecture in the world.
Next comes guided visits of Florence that will include a visit to the city’s famous Duomo Cathedral . The Duomo dominates the skyline of the incredible Tuscan city. It was constructed over six centuries and expresses the bridging of Greek and Gothic architecture. Student will also visit Ponte Vecchio the oldest surviving arched bridge in Florence as well as the Uffizi Museum which houses one of the world’s greatest collections of art. Then we move on to Assisi where we will Visit the Basilica of St. Francis and Minerva’s temple. From there we move on to Rome. In Rome students will take a guided visit of the city that will include stops at the Coliseum, Hadrian’s Pantheon, the Vatican, (St Peter's Basilica, the Sistine Chapel), Trevi fountain and more.
From there we move on to Sorrento from which we will take a guided tour of Pompeii and its incredible ruins. Following that we will travel to Brindisi where we will board an overnight ferry to Igoumenitsa Greece. Leaving the ferry we will board our bus and take the winding roads into the mountains at daybreak. Next we will take a guided tour of one of the six Greek Orthodox Meteora monasteries perched high upon cliffs atop steep sandstone buttes in central Greece near the plain of Thessaly. From there we will proceed to a guided tour of Delphi, cite of the ancient Oracle and the Athenian Treasury, and many other ancient architectural wonders. While there we will also visit the Delphi museum which houses many incredible ancient Greek artifacts. From there we will go on the Mycene and the Lions Gate. This city is one of mainland Greece’s oldest architectural wonders and dates back to the Homeric period. Indeed legend has it that the forty-foot tall egg shaped tomb we will walk into is Agamemnon’s. While the legend is almost certainly untrue the historic significance is very real. This was one of the first walled cities on mainland Greece.
Our bus will then take us across the Peloponnese, land of the Spartans and across the Isthmus of Corinth. From there we go on to Epidaurus Theater one of the very few theaters that retains its original circular structure.(Most were converted to semi circle after the Romans invaded Greece.) The view, aesthetics, and acoustics of the theater are breathtaking.
Finally, we move on to Athens were we will take a tour of the city which will culminate in an assent to the Acropolis where we will visit the Parthenon and walk in the footsteps of Socrates, Plato and Pericles. Exhausted, but more worldly and enlightened, we head for home.
For more program information, please contact the faculty leader: Dr. Mark Chadsey at firstname.lastname@example.org
Housing & Orientation
Participants stay in hotels throughout the program with the exception of one overnight ferry.
Fees for Brockport's Greece and Italy Winter program 2014-15: $4,860.00 (est)
Greece-Italy Winter 15 EST.pdf
Program Acceptance Fee
Airfare: Round-trip flights
Accommodations: 12 overnight stays in hotels with private bathrooms • 1 night cabin accommodations
In-country transportation: Comfortable motor coach • Night ferry
Some meals: European breakfast and dinner daily
Sightseeing: Sightseeing tours led by licensed local guides & Walking tours
Group activities and excursions
Tour director: Full-time EF Tour Director
Brockport's Study Abroad Office Services
DOES NOT INCLUDE:
Various campus-specific fees** (college fee, technology fee, etc.).
Personal expenses (laundry, telephone, internet, beverages, etc)
Financial aid applies towards fees.
**Varies depending on the SUNY campus at which the participant pays tuition.
No refunds are made for non-participation in itinerary activities. Refunds for cancellation are subject to administrative fees and unrecoverable costs. Final payment is due 30 days prior to departure.
Please note: The cost of this program is subject to change until November 15th, 2014 depending on market conditions (exchange rate, airfare, etc.)
Participants earn three credit hours (undergraduate or graduate) for this course.
1. Every student will write a research paper that will be due via Angel/email on December 20th 2013. Every student may pick their own topic for this paper but it must be related to the countries we visit. The paper can focus on one of the sites we visit for example you may write about the history of Venice, the Vatican, the Medici family, or the Ancient ruins at Mycenae. Alternately, the research paper can focus on a contemporary or ancient/medieval political or social issue in any of the countries we visit. The purpose of this paper is to push you to a greater level of understanding about some aspect of the places we visit. This paper will account for 60% of your grade in the class.
2. Every student will hand in a journal of their travels at the end of the trip (again by e-mail or through Angel.) The journal should be a record of where you went what you saw and more importantly what you learned while on the trip. This journal will account for 30% of your grade. This journal will be typed, double spaced and between 7-10 pages.
3. Because we will be together in confined spaces (hotels, airports, planes,) for a long period on this trip our behavior will greatly impact others. For that reason there will be a behavior component of the grade that will account for the final 10% of the grade. We will all get tired and have a bad moment or do something silly on the trip and that is to be expected but consistently boorish behavior or mistreatment of others will not be tolerated. If you engage in such behavior I will use this portion of the grade to penalize you for this bad behavior. A reminder in this regard, any problems caused by excessive alcohol consumption will result in a failing grade notwithstanding the 10% limit to this component. DON’T DO IT!.
Before departing on the trip every student should read “A brief History of Italy from Ancient Times to Today” which can be found on line at http://www.localhistories.org/italy.html. In addition every student should read A History of Ancient Greece by William Smith which can be found on line at http://www.ellopos.net/elpenor/greek-texts/ancient-greece/history-of-ancient-greece.asp. The purpose of these reading is to familiarize students with Italian and Greek history such that the lectures presented on the trip will fit into a historical context. Every cite we visit has its place in history and these works will help us understand that history.
The content of this course is largely the trip itself which will be an intensive fifteen day educational experience for students. During this fifteen day period students will learn about Renaissance Italy as well as ancient Rome and Greece through guided tours that will discuss the political, religious, architectural and artistic history of all three civilizations. What follows is a description of just three of the many educational experience students will have. Each one focuses on a particular cite we will tour with a guide. (With very brief descriptions of several other experiences/cites in between). Equally educational experiences await students at every cite we visit.
The course begins with a guided tour of Venice where students will be taken to Doges’ Palace which was the seat of the government in Venice for over 1000 years. It was also the principle law court for the city as well as, for many centuries, the city jail. The guide will walk students through the Palace while describing its political history from the election of Paolo Lucio Anafesto in 697AD to the deposing of Ludovico Nanin in 1789.
The system of elected doges was as unique as everything else about this very one-of-a-kind city. Venice began as a republic and its citizenry was constantly on guard against hereditary rule, though in time its politics was increasingly dominated by the ruling classes. Students will learn that the doge, who was the only official elected for life, ruled over a large bureaucracy of elected civil servants, committees and councils.
The palace walls, made of white limestone and pink marble, were broken by magnificent porticos which display finely crafted arcades and a series of balconies. The Palazzo, students will learn, is an example of Venetian Gothic architecture at its finest.
Throughout the Palace the artwork is elaborate and impressive. The 36 columns on the lower portion of the building display an array of animals, flowers and representations of the months of the year. Students will learn that the didactic moral sculptures represent biblical scenes including the Judgment of Solomon, the Drunkenness of Noah, Adam and Eve with the Archangel Gabriel, and so on.
Students will enter the palazzo through a door next to the Lagoon, stepping into an enormous courtyard. Here they will see the eclectic mix of styles that make up the palace which resulted from each successive doge’s efforts to make the palace ever more splendid. The eastern façade for instance constructed by Antonio Rizzo in 1485, is an example of Renaissance classicism and was decorated by Pietro, Antonio and Tullio Lombardo. Both the south and west side façade on the other hand, are Gothic in design. Sansovino built the enormous staircase known as the Scala dei Giganti, in the mid-16th century. Spavento, Scarpagnino and Bartolomeo Monopola completed the courtyard around 1600. Next students will climb the Scala dei Giganti, overlooking two enormous statues of Neptune and Mars, and reach the first-floor loggia. It was here that the doges were crowned after a religious service in St Mark’s.
Moving on to the Museo dell’Opera, students will see the rest of the building's medieval facades and a collection of sculptures dating from the 14th and 15th Centuries. The golden staircase beneath the south-east of the portico was designed by Sansovino and leads to a succession of 16th century rooms. Gilt stuccoes by Alessandro Vittorio can be found on the ceiling. Upstairs students will walk through the doge’s private rooms to the Anticollegio. It was here that the doge and council would meet foreign dignitaries. The Anticollegio has four Tintorettos (Vulcan’s Forge, Mercury and the Graces, Bacchus and Ariadne and Minerva and Mars.
Finally students will enter the Sala del Maggior Consiglio, the most magnificent room in the palace and then out over the narrow Ponte dei Sospiri (Bridge of Sighs, constructed 1602) which leads to the city’s ‘new’ prison. Before it was constructed convicts were kept in the eaves of the doge’s palace, or in the cellars.
After our tour of the palace, students will observe a glass blowing demonstration and then visit the Grand Canal and St Mark's Basilica (Basilica di San Marco in Italian) which is the most famous of the many churches of Venice and one of the best examples of Byzantine architecture in the world.
Next comes a guided tour of Florence that will include a visit to the famous Duomo Cathedral . The Duomo dominates this incredible Tuscan city. It was constructed over six centuries and expresses the bridging of Greek and Gothic architecture. Student will also visit Ponte Vecchio the oldest surviving arched bridge in Florence as well as the Uffizi Museum which houses one of the world’s greatest collections of art. Then we are on our way to Rome but on route we will visit Basilica of St. Francis of Assisi and the temple of Minerva. In Rome students will take a guided visit of the Coliseum, Hadrian’s Pantheon, the Vatican, (St Peter's Basilica, the Sistine Chapel), Trevi fountain and more.
From there we move on take a guided tour of Pompeii.
During our visit to Pompeii students will learn that along with Herculaneum, its sister city, Pompeii was destroyed, and completely buried, during a long catastrophic eruption of the volcano Mount Vesuvius spanning two days in AD 79. The volcano destroyed most of the higher buildings and buried Pompeii under many feet of ash. As a result the city disappeared for nearly 1700 years before being discovered accidentally in 1748. Its discovery has provided many insights into “Roman” life at the height of the empire.
While taking the guided visit of the city students will discover that Pompeii was a thriving city at the time of Mount Vesuvius’ eruption and likely was home to some 20,000 inhabitants. Scholars believe that the town also housed many Roman holiday villas.
Archeologists have uncovered a treasure trove of artifacts that reveal everything from the city’s temples to the smallest details of everyday life. For example, in many of the houses clues abound, in both words and pictorial form, concerning business practiced there, such as words for the 'laundry' workers (Fullones), and frescos that indicate restaurants and brothels. Intact molds of humans and animals buried in the very positions in which they died leave lasting impressions of the horror and devastation of Vesuvius’ eruption. Graffiti carved on the walls provides examples of vulgar or street Latin very different from the literary or classical Latin. Students will discover some of the world’s oldest speed bumps designed to keep chariots from moving too fast down the narrow streets crowded with shoppers and merchants.
Pompeii was incorporated into the Roman Republic in 89 BC, after the final occupation of the city by Roman General Lucius Cornelius Sulla. After its annexation by Rome, Pompeii underwent dramatic infrastructural development, a good deal of which was undertaken during Augustan’s reign. As we walk through the remains of this city students will see the amphitheatre which scholars cite as a model of sophisticated design particularly in the area of crowd control., a Palaestra with a central natatorium or swimming pool, and an aqueduct that provided water for more than 25 street fountains, at least four public baths, and a large number of private houses (domus) and businesses. Students will learn that the aqueduct system branched out through three main pipes from the Castellum Aquae, where the waters were collected before being distributed to the city; although it did much more than distribute the waters, it did so with the prerequisite that in the case of extreme drought, the water supply would first fail to reach the public baths (the least vital service), then private houses and businesses, and finally when there would be no water flow at all, the system would then at last fail to supply the public fountains (the most vital service) in the streets of Pompeii.
Next we move on to Brindisi where we take an overnight ferry across the Ionian sea to Igoumenitsa arriving before daybreak and take a bus through the steep mountains of north western Greece as the sun rises. We will take a guided tour of one of the six Greek Orthodox Meteora monasteries perched high upon cliffs atop steep sandstone buttes in central Greece near the plain of Thessaly. From there we will proceed to a guided tour of Delphi, cite of the ancient Oracle and the Athenian Treasury, and many other ancient architectural wonders. While there we will also visit the Delphi museum which houses many incredible ancient Greek artifacts. From there we will go on the Mycene and the Lions Gate. This city is one of mainland Greece’s oldest architectural wonders and dates back to the Homeric period. Indeed legend has it that the forty foot tall egg shaped tomb we will walk into is Agamemnon’s. While the legend is almost certainly untrue the historic significance is very real. This was one of the first walled cities on mainland Greece.
Our bus will take us across the Peloponnese, land of the Spartans and across the isthmus of Corinth. From there we go on to Epidaurus Theater one of the very few theaters that retains its original circular structure. During Roman occupation of Greece, most theater "Orchestras" were changed from a circle to a semicircle but luckily the theater at Epidaurus escaped intact. The view, aesthetics, and acoustics of the theater are breathtaking.
Finally, we move on to Athens were we will take a walking tour of the city which will culminate in an assent to the Acropolis where we will visit the Parthenon and walk in the footsteps of Socrates, Plato and Pericles.
According to Ancient-Greece.org, “The Parthenon is a temple of the Doric order with eight columns at the façade, and seventeen columns at the flanks, conforming to the established ratio of 9:4. This ratio governed the vertical and horizontal proportions of the temple as well as many other relationships of the building like the spacing between the columns and their height.
The cella was unusually large to accommodate the oversized statue of Athena, confining the front and back porch to a much smaller than usual size. A line of six Doric columns supported the front and back porch, while a colonnade of 23 smaller Doric columns surrounded the statue in a two-storied arrangement. The placement of columns behind the statue was an unusual development since in previous Doric temples they only appeared on the flanks, but the greater width and length of the Parthenon allowed for a dramatic backdrop of double decked columns instead of a wall.
The back room sheltered Athena’s treasure and four columns of the Ionic order supported its roof. The introduction of elements of the Ionic order in a predominately Doric temple was more dramatic in the development of a continuous freeze on the exterior wall of the cella. While the integration of Doric and Ionic elements on the same temple was not a new development in Greek architecture, it was rare, and bestowed on the Parthenon a delicate balance between austere and delicate visual characteristics.
All temples in Greece were designed to be seen only from the outside. The viewers never entered a temple and could only glimpse the interior statues through the open doors. The Parthenon was conceived in a way that the aesthetic elements allow for a smooth transition between the exterior and the interior that housed the chryselephantine statue of Athena. A visitor to the Acropolis who entered from the Propylaia would be confronted by the majestic proportion of the Parthenon in three quarters view, with full view of the west pediment and the north colonnade. As the viewer moved closer, the details of the sculpted metopes would become decipherable, and when in proximity to the base of the columns, parts of the frieze would become evident in tantalizing colorful glimpses peering from the spaces between the columns.
Moving towards the east and looking up towards the exterior of the cella, a visitor would be mesmerized with the masterful depiction of the Panathenaic procession as it appeared in cinematic fashion on the frieze which was visually interrupted by the Doric columns of the exterior. This was certainly a scene that every Athenian could relate to through personal experience, making thus the transition between earth and the divine a smooth one. A visitor moving east would eventually turn the corner to face the entrance of the Parthenon, and there he would be confronted with the birth of Athena high above on the east pediment, and just beyond it, the arrephorres folding the peplos among the Olympian gods and the heroes of the frieze. Then, just below, the “peplos” scene, through the immense open doors, any visitor would be enchanted by the glistening gold and ivory hues of the monumental statute of Athena standing at the back of the dim cella. The statue of Athena Pallas reflected its immense stature on the tranquil surface of the water-pool floor, and was framed by yet more Doric columns, this time smaller, in a double-decked arrangement that made the interior space seem as if it were even larger and taller than the exterior.
It seems certain that the master planners of the Parthenon conceived it as a theatrical event. The temple was constructed with the movements of the viewer in mind, and by the arrangement of the temple, the monumental sculptures of the pediment, and the detailed frieze, the emotions of the visitors were choreographed to prepare them for the ultimate glimpse of the majestic Athena Parthenos at the interior of the naos, and to maximize the effect of an awe inspiring visit."
The Brockport Office of International Education and the Professor publish this expected itinerary with the intent of providing these or similar experiences for the student so he/she will have an outstanding Study Abroad Experience. We reserve the right to change specific items in the itinerary or to cancel itinerary items without replacement if we deem that financial, logistical or political conditions make it advisable to do so.
Day 1 Flight
Overnight flight to Italy • Relax as we fly across the Atlantic.
Day 2 Milan • Venice
Arrival in Milan • Touch down in Milan, fashion and finance capital of Italy. After clearing customs, we will meet our EF Tour Director, who will remain with us throughout the tour. Transfer via Verona (time permitting) • Transfer by way of Romeo and Juliet’s Verona, known for its couplets and Capulets. Here, we can see the town’s Roman Arena, which dates back to the 1st century. We will also see a bronze statue of Juliet, standing below the balcony said to be the one where Juliet called to her Romeo. Arrival in Venice • Arrive in magical Venice, home of Marco Polo.
Day 3 Venice
Guided sightseeing of Venice • Begin our tour of La Serenissima (the city’s nickname, meaning “the most serene”) at St. Mark’s Square, “the finest drawing room in Europe,” according to Napoleon. Allegedly buried under the altar of the basilica are St. Mark’s remains, which, in the 11th century, were smuggled out of Alexandria in a barrel of salt pork to prevent a thorough search by the city’s Muslim guards. Also see the Grand Canal and the 324-foot campanile (bell tower), whose steps were originally built so that a noble could ascend on horseback. Look for the clock where two bronze figures have been striking the hour for more than 500 years. Venice is also famous for its glassware—you’ll see why during a glassblowing demonstration. Visit to Doges’ Palace • Visit the grand 14th-century, pink-and-white Doges’ Palace, from which mighty Venetian dukes once ruled. Here, you’ll stroll over the Bridge of Sighs, connecting the palace and its prison. As they crossed the bridge, prisoners supposedly sighed with perfect sadness as they regarded their beautiful city for the last time. Casanova made a daring escape from this prison in 1756.
Day 4 Venice • Florence
Arrival in Florence • Arrive in Florence, birthplace of the Italian language, the Renaissance and opera.
Day 5 Florence
Guided sightseeing of Florence • Fall under the spell of the powerful Medici family. Pass the classical statues of the Piazza della Signoria, where Michelangelo’s David originally stood and now the site of an impressive replica. From behind the Uffizi Palace, we will see the Ponte Vecchio, one of the city’s only bridges to survive WWII and now one of its most photographed sites. The bridge provided the Medici easy access from the Pitti Palace to the Uffizi. Continue past the Chiesa di Santa Croce, final resting place of Michelangelo, Machiavelli and Galileo.
Next, we will visit the Santa Maria del Fiore Cathedral, better known as the Duomo, or dome, that dominates Florence’s skyline. The dome was sculptor and architect Brunelleschi’s finest work and the nearby campanile was designed by the painter Giotto. Look for the famous bronzed doors—Ghiberti’s legendary Gates of Paradise—at the Baptistery opposite the Duomo. Later, watch artisans at work at a local leather-making demonstration.
Day 6 Florence • Rome
Transfer via Assisi • Stop in Assisi, birthplace of both St. Francis and St. Clare. On our visit to the Basilica of St. Francis, follow the life of one of Italy’s most beloved saints through Giotto’s artful frescoes.
Arrival in Rome • Arrive in bella Roma, the Eternal City. Here, Charlemagne was crowned by the pope in A.D. 800.
Day 7 Rome
Visit to Vatican City • Today, we will explore Vatican City, the world’s smallest country.Begin at the Vatican Museum, where elaborate galleries filled with one artistic masterpiece after another lead us directly to the Sistine Chapel. Between 1508 and 1512, Michelangelo painted some of the world’s finest pictorial images on the chapel’s ceiling. This was his first attempt at working in fresco, which he did by standing up and craning backward from a scaffold. Next, tour St. Peter’s Basilica, erected on the site where the saint was martyred. Enter the basilica under the watchful eyes of the brightly dressed Swiss Guard. Inside, admire Michelangelo’s Pietà, the only sculpture he ever signed.
Guided sightseeing of Rome • We will begin with a panoramic tour of Imperial Rome. Then spend time exploring the mighty Colosseum, Rome’s largest amphitheater. Its elaborate construction spanned two emperors—building began between A.D. 70 and 72 under Vespasian and was completed in A.D. 80 under Titus. Originally built to accommodate nearly 50,000 spectators, the Coliseum played host to some of the most incredible spectacles of the day, including gladiatorial combat, mock sea battles, animal hunts, executions and even dramatic performances based on classical mythology. Later, we will take atour of the Forum Romanum, once the heart of the Roman Empire.
Day 8 Rome • Sorrento
Transfer to Sorrento • Experience the unparalleled beauty of Italy’s favorite resort, overlooking the Bay of Naples.
Day 9 Sorrento • Night Ferry
Guided sightseeing of Pompeii • Learn how wealthy Romans lived 2,000 years ago on an excursion to Pompeii, one of the richest archaeological sites in the world. When neighboring Mount Vesuvius erupted in A.D. 79, volcanic ash completely buried the Roman resort. Now it is fully excavated, and we can see the ruins of villas, ancient temples and the Stabian Baths.
Night ferry to Greece • Board a night ferryin Brindisi. We will sleep in cabin accommodations as we sail overnight across the Ionian Sea to Greece.
Day 10 Meteora Region
Arrival in Igoumenitsa • Disembark in Igoumenitsa, a bustling hub for ferries and ships traveling between the Greek islands and the ports of Italy.
Transfer to Meteora region • Continue to the Meteora region, home to many examples of Byzantine art and architecture. Here we’ll spend the night.
Day 11 Meteora Region • Delphi
Guided sightseeing of Meteora monasteries • A local guide introduces us to the Meteora region, renowned for its many monasteries built on spectacular natural rock pillars. These monasteries were used as retreats during troubled times, and today’s tour will take you to one such monastery.
Transfer to Delphi • Home of the mystical Oracle at Delphi we will climb the hillside though ancient ruins where we will see the building where the Athenian Treasury was stored during the days of the Delian league. These incredible ruins overlook a valley of olive orchards with thousands of olive trees and small villages. Then we visit the Temple of Apollo where, according to legend, the gods communicated with mortals. Our visit concludes with a stop at the Delphi Museum, whose collection boasts many artifacts dating back to 550 B.C., reminiscent of the mythical past of ancient Greece.
Transfer to Argolida • From Delphi we continue to Argolida home to Greece’s first capital, the peninsula isdotted with orange and olive groves. Together with the Isthmus of Corinth, Argolida forms the Saronic Gulf, famed for its sailing and charters due to its proximity to Athens.
Day 13 Epidaurus • Mycenae • Athens
Guided excursion to Epidaurus • We Visit the ancient site of Epidaurus, famous for its open air theater (dating from the 4th century B.C.),the best-preserved in all of Greece.
Guided sightseeing of Mycenae • We’ll also tour legendary Mycenae, according to legend it was founded by Perseus with the help of the Cyclops. From here, homer tells us that Agamemnon is said to have begun his campaign against Troy.
Transfer via Corinth Canal • Go by way of Corinth Canal we head to Athens.
Arrival in Athens • Arrive in Athens, Cradle of Democracy and birthplace of Western Civilization.
Day 14 Athens
Guided sightseeing of Athens. An expert local guide introduces us to the antiquities of Athens. We will climb the Acropolis to view the majestic Parthenon, perhaps the world’s greatest architectural feat. See the Temple of Athena Nike, which once housed a gold statue of the goddess (her wings were clipped to keep her from ever deserting the city). Athens is named after Athena, the goddess of war and wisdom. After seeing the Presidential Guard in their traditional costumes, pass the stadium where the first modern Olympics were held in 1896, as well as lively Omonia and Syntagma squares. During free time you may have later, use your ticket from this morning’s sightseeing to explore other sights in Athens. Visit the Agora, ancient Athens’ political, economic and commercial center, which holds the remains of the Temple of Hephaistos, begun in 449 B.C. You might also visit the Athenian Cemetery, a who’s who of Ancient Athens. It contains impressive family tombs, where statesmen, warriors and authors were laid to rest. Walking tour of Athens • Get acquainted with the endearing Plaka district. Stroll past the Temple of Olympian Zeus, built to honor the most powerful of all Greek gods—construction began in 515 B.C.
Day 15 Home
Return home • Our tour director assists with the transfer to the airport, where we’ll check in for your return flight home.